Palette A palette is a smooth, flat surface on which artists set out and mix their colours before painting, often designed Pan-Africanism The term pan-Africanism refers to an ideology of racial solidarity with Africa and its diaspora formed in the mid-nineteenth century. Panel A panel is a rigid support or surface for painting on.
Paper Paper is made from matted plant fibres made into sheet form either by hand traditional or machine modern and used Participatory art Participatory art is a term that describes a form of art that directly engages the audience in the creative process Pastel Pastel is a coloured drawing medium made from pure coloured pigment mixed with a binder to form a stick. Patina The word patina usually refers to a distinct green or brown surface layer on bronze sculpture.
Pendant A pendant picture is one of two pictures designed to hang together as a matching pair. Performance art Artworks that are created through actions performed by the artist or other participants, which may be live or recorded, spontaneous Performativity The term performativity describes the interdependent relationship between certain words and actions — as when a word or sentence implies Perspective The term perspective refers to the representation of objects in three-dimensional space i.
The problem can occur with most types of printing, and is avoided by the use of slipsheets between copies so any ink transfer occurs onto discardable paper or anti-set-off spray powder. The term in offset printing also refers to the unwanted transfer of ink to rollers and friction points throughout the printing press. Ink that is not properly dried or set can build up over time and cause marking on the finished product. Additionally, some offset printing applications add moisture back into the paper after an offset heat set dryer.
Materials range from rigid to flexible, high temperature to biocompatible. Let also this advantage, most machines are able to print in an incredible z-resolution of 16 microns, resulting in extraordinarily smooth parts. The two main disadvantages of objects created through this method are that they tend to be brittle as well as degrade when left in the sun. Material jetting is also slower than most other processes and the material is relatively more expensive.
Stereolithography was patented in by Chuck Hull. Photopolymerization is primarily used in stereolithography SLA to produce a solid part from a liquid. In digital-light-processing DLP , a vat of liquid polymer is exposed to light from a DLP projector under safelight conditions.
The exposed liquid polymer hardens. The build plate then moves down in small increments and the liquid polymer is again exposed to light. The process repeats until the model has been built.
The liquid polymer is then drained from the vat, leaving the solid model. Each photopolymer layer is cured with UV light after it is jetted, producing fully cured models that can be handled and used immediately, without post-curing.
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The gel-like support material, which is designed to support complicated geometries, is removed by hand and water jetting. It is also suitable for elastomers. Ultra-small features can be made with the 3D microfabrication technique used in multiphoton photopolymerization.
This approach traces the desired 3D object in a block of gel using a focused laser. Due to the nonlinear nature of photoexcitation, the gel is cured to a solid only in the places where the laser was focused and the remaining gel is then washed away. Feature sizes of under nm are easily produced, as well as complex structures with moving and interlocked parts.
Another additive manufacturing approach is the selective fusing of materials in a granular bed. The technique fuses parts of the layer, and then moves the working area downwards, adding another layer of granules and repeating the process until the piece has built up. This process uses the unfused media to support overhangs and thin walls in the part being produced, which reduces the need for temporary auxiliary supports for the piece. A laser is typically used to sinter the media into a solid.
Examples include selective laser sintering SLS , with both metals and polymers e. Carl Deckard and Dr.
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A similar process was patented without being commercialized by R. Housholder in Selective Laser Melting SLM does not use sintering for the fusion of powder granules but will completely melt the powder using a high-energy laser to create fully dense materials in a layerwise method with similar mechanical properties to conventional manufactured metals. Electron beam melting EBM is a similar type of additive manufacturing technology for metal parts e. EBM manufactures parts by melting metal powder layer by layer with an electron beam in a high vacuum. Unlike metal sintering techniques that operate below the melting point, EBM parts are fully dense, void-free, and very strong.
Another method consists of an inkjet 3D printing system. The printer creates the model one layer at a time by spreading a layer of powder plaster, or resins and printing a binder in the cross-section of the part using an inkjet-like process. This is repeated until every layer has been printed. This technology allows the printing of full-color prototypes, overhangs, and elastomer parts. The strength of bonded powder prints can be enhanced with wax or thermoset polymer impregnation.
In some printers, paper can be used as the build material, resulting in a lower cost to print. During the s some companies marketed printers that cut cross sections out of special adhesive coated paper using a carbon dioxide laser, and then laminated them together. In , Mcor Technologies Ltd developed a different process using ordinary sheets of office paper, a Tungsten carbide blade to cut the shape and selective deposition of adhesive and pressure to bond the prototype.
There are also a number of companies selling printers that print laminated objects using thin plastic and metal sheets. Certification Resources. Additive Manufacturing Glossary. What is Additive Manufacturing? Additive Manufacturing Processes A number of additive processes are now available. Commercially available devices, such as Objet Connex, apply the resin via small nozzles. Yet another approach uses a synthetic resin that is solidified using LEDs. Additive Manufacturing vs. Binder Jetting.
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Direct Energy Deposition. Material Extrusion. Material Jetting.